The Great Sphinx has greatly deteriorated over the years, and since ancient times—possibly beginning in the reign of Thutmose IV (1400–1390 BCE)—various efforts have been undertaken to preserve the statue. Whereas the body has suffered the most erosion, the face has also been damaged, and its nose is notably missing. According to some, the damage was caused by Napoleon’s troops, who shot off the nose with a cannon. However, illustrations that date before Napoleon reveal a noseless sphinx. Another theory contends that Muhammad Saʾim al-Dahr, a Sufi Muslim, mutilated the statue in the 14th century to protest idolatry.