Black cats are generally held to be unlucky in the United States and Europe, and to portend good luck in the United Kingdom.[6] In the latter country, a black cat entering a house or ship is a good omen, and a sailor’s wife should have a black cat for her husband’s safety on the sea.[6][7] Elsewhere, it is unlucky if a black cat crosses one’s path; black cats have been associated with death and darkness.[2] White cats, bearing the colour of ghosts, are conversely held to be unlucky in the United Kingdom, while tortoiseshell cats are lucky.[6] It is common lore that cats have nine lives.[6] It is a tribute to their perceived durability, their occasional apparent lack of instinct for self-preservation, and their seeming ability to survive falls that would be fatal to other animals.