A Statutory Instrument, The Plugs and Sockets etc. (Safety) Regulations 1987[15] was introduced to specifically regulate plugs and sockets in the United Kingdom. This was revised by The Plugs and Sockets etc. (Safety) Regulations 1994.[16] The guidance notes to the 1994 regulations[17] stateThe Plugs and Sockets, etc. (Safety) Regulations 1994 (the “Regulations”) were introduced to provide a regulatory regime to address issues regarding consumer safety. There were concerns that consumer safety was compromised by the substantial quantity of counterfeit and unsafe electrical plugs and sockets being placed on the UK market and also by the provision of electrical equipment without an appropriate means to connect it to the mains supply in the consumer’s home. The regulations include a requirement that all plug types must be tested and certified by a nominated approval body (normally BSI, ASTA-Intertek or NEMKO). They also require that all mains appliances for domestic use in the UK are supplied with approved BS 1363 plugs, but there is an exception for plugs fitted to shavers and toothbrushes which are normally a UK shaver plug (BS 4573) but may also be a Europlug (BS EN 50075). The regulations also contain a provision for the approval of non-BS 1363 conforming plugs when the plugs are constructed using an alternative method of construction which provides an equivalent level of safety in respect of any risk of death or personal injury to plugs which conform to BS 1363 and is such that plugs of that type may reasonably be expected to be safe in use. Certifying bodies have used this provision by developing their own standards for novel devices, thus allowing the introduction of innovative developments, an example is the plastic ISOD (insulated shutter opening device) which was originally approved against either an ASTA Standard[18] or the BSI PAS 003 before becoming incorporated into BS 1363-1:1995.